Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most important psychiatric problems in child psychology. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is an education and training problem at the same time as it concerns the family, school and society.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most important psychiatric problems in child psychology. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is an education and training problem at the same time with its aspects that concern the family, school and society.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
IT HAS NO RELATIONSHIP WITH INTELLIGENCE.
Any child with Above Normal, Below Normal, or Normal intelligence can experience ADHD.
PARENTS AND TEACHERS DEFINE THESE CHILDREN
"What I say goes in one ear and out the other"
"He knows all the car brands but can't remember what I said a minute ago"
" He can sit in front of the computer for hours, but at most 10 minutes at homework."
" He makes careless mistakes in exams " " He can't listen to the lecture, he's always around
" He doesn't finish what he started " " He has been active since prenatal "
"If his hand stops, his foot moves"
"Constantly in motion, not walking, running"
"It either talks or makes noises" "Moves even while watching TV"
" Can show 50 ways to sit in a chair " " I see it everywhere I look in the classroom "
"Even while sitting in line, his hands and feet are moving"
SYMPTOMS OF Impulsivity
It is a problem of regulating and directing behavior according to the environment and its consequences.
They don't think about the consequences before doing something ("I'll be penalized if I do this").
Before doing something, they do not consider whether that behavior is appropriate for that environment ("This behavior is not done here").
They do not think about how what they are going to say will affect the other person ("I will be offended if I say this") They actually know what they should or should not do, but they cannot apply what they know.
They know a rule, if you ask them, they can explain it appropriately, but because they act without thinking, they may break it again.
This situation angers both parents and teachers more. These behaviors are described as intentional or because the rules are not taken seriously. For this reason, they are dealt with in more brutal ways.
PARENTS AND TEACHERS DEFINE THESE CHILDREN
"He's 10 years old and he still hasn't learned not to interrupt"
" Acts without thinking " " He is impatient, wants requests immediately "
"He can never wait his turn"
"He tries to answer the question before he completes it"
"Does whatever comes to mind"
CAUSES OF ADHD
It's a hereditary problem.
Genes inherited from parents predispose to this problem.
There is a high risk of similar problems in other members of the family.
Parents of children with ADHD are 2-8 times more likely to have similar symptoms than normal children. Siblings of children with ADHD have 2-3 times more ADHD than normal children.
Comorbidity rate in identical twins is 80-90%, in fraternal twins 30%
These factors do not directly cause ADHD. It increases the risk only in genetically predisposed individuals.
Prenatal (being sick during pregnancy, alcohol, smoking, drug use)
During childbirth (premature birth, birth complications)
Postpartum (Some diseases, exposure to substances such as lead, etc.)
The regions in the brain responsible for attention and behavior control are not active enough.
Being easily distracted, hyperactivity and acting without thinking are the results of these centers in the brain not working well.
PROCESS IN ADHD
It begins in early childhood,
It is most commonly diagnosed in the primary school period,
70-80% of those diagnosed in childhood also show the same symptoms in adolescence.
Of these, 50-65% receive the same diagnosis in adulthood.
ADHD is a disorder that begins in early childhood and can continue throughout life.
Although the basic symptoms are the same, there is a different appearance in every age period.
In particular, symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity decrease over time.
Attention deficit can persist throughout life.
It is seen in 3-5% of primary school children, that is, in one of every 20-30 children.
There is a possibility that at least 1 child in each class will have this problem.
It is seen 3-4 times more in boys than girls.
80% of those with ADHD in their childhood have these symptoms in adolescence and 30-65% in adulthood.
It is reported to occur with a frequency of 1-2% among adults (in the USA and Canada).
ISSUES ACCOMPANYING ADHD
Clumsiness, coordination difficulties
Problems in social relationships
low self esteem
They are restless, nervous babies.
They cry easily, they are hard to calm down.
They overreact to external stimuli (such as sound, touch).
There may be sleep problems (such as little sleep, frequent waking).
"He used to move a lot even when I was in my stomach"
"He liked that I was always walking around when I held him"
"Never sleeps for long, wakes up very easily" PRESCHOOL TERM
He is constantly moving, jumping, jumping, climbing places.
He can't delay his wishes, they get stuck.
He wants the attention to be on him all the time, he does things to provide it.
It moves from one game to the next, its relevance is very short.
He talks a lot, constantly asks questions, but does not listen to the answer.
Unhappiness, whining, over-dependence on parents.
It is most commonly diagnosed during this period.
He cannot sit quietly and quietly.
He cannot listen carefully to the lesson, he is more interested in his surroundings.
He answers the questions asked without waiting for the end, without asking for a word.
Does not fully perform the assigned tasks.
There may be relationship problems with other children.
He makes friends with children similar to himself.
He doesn't bring his things exactly, he loses them, he is messy.
His academic success is not proportional to his capacity.
Does not take homework, doing homework at home is a problem.
There is a decrease in hyperactivity, but the fidgeting continues.
He cannot listen to lectures, he may be sleepy or he is busy with things like turning a pencil or drawing
Academic success becomes a more serious problem.
There are problems in relations with teachers, they respond, they are characterized as a disrespectful, indifferent student.
There may be problems in family and friend relationships.
Decreased self-esteem, depression can be seen, mood is volatile, can suddenly become angry
Smoking, alcohol and substance use may begin.
They may have risky, dangerous behaviors that may cause legal problems.
TREATMENT METHODS TO COPE WITH ADHD
1. Pharmacological treatments (drug therapy)
2. Parent and teacher training
3. Individual treatment of the child (behavioral techniques, social skills training)
1. Alternative treatments
Don't be energetic
Being warm and friendly
Ability to relate easily Flexibility Tolerance
Have a good sense of humor
Taking risks (sometimes more than necessary)
Ability to trust people easily (sometimes more than necessary)
WHAT CAN WE DO?
FOR THE LACK OF ATTENTION...
Sit in a quiet place.
Sit next to a friend who can set a good example.
Have him sit next to a hardworking friend with whom he is sincere.
Enlist the help of this friend in note-taking.
Increase the distance between all the rows in the classroom.
Give him additional time to complete the given work.
Shorten tasks or study time to match attention span.
Set short-term goals.
Assign one task at a time.
Reduce the amount of homework.
Give clear and precise instructions.
Give a warning-signal to continue the activity.
Make sure to pause every now and then as you work.
Give him the opportunity to take a break from sitting in line.
Take short breaks between tasks.
If he has worked hastily and carelessly, teach him to control his work.
Ignore minor, inappropriate behavior.
Cautiously condemn inappropriate behavior.
Praise positive behavior.
Make sure the student is not hungry. Teach them to raise their hands and call out when necessary.
Only go to him when he raises his hand in an appropriate way.
Praise when he raises his hand to answer a question.